This emission has an impact on the iodine chemistry (AgI) and on the behavior of aerosols in the reactor primary circuit and in the containment. The presence of control rod material influences the source term potentially present in a PWR containment and likely to in the atmosphere.
Iodine is a fission product of major importance, because volatile species can be formed under severe nuclear reactor accident conditions, and may potentially be released into the environment, leading to significant radiological consequences.
The purpose of the SISYPHE (Simulation du Système Phébus Enceinte) facility at Cadarache was to build a 1:1 replica of the Phébus FP experimental containment vessel, assisting the Phébus test interpretation, for all phenomena concerning thermal-hydraulics and fission product behaviour.
In case of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear LWR (light water reactor), the high radiation fields reached in the reactor containment building due to the release of fission products from the reactor core could induce air radiolysis.
The experiment objective was to study the physical phenomena that affect hydrogen distribution in the reactor containment such as: steam wall condensation, heat mass and momentum exchanges with the sump or with the containment spray systems.
The main components of the facility are scaled about 1:18 linearly to a large European reactor: the containment pressure vessel (volume 14 m³), the RPV-RCS pressure vessel (0.08 m³), the cavity, the subcompartment, and the steam accumulator (0.08 m³).
The test facility consists of a slender cylinder with an effective inner diameter of 0.66 m bearing plane glass windows in the front and back sides. The upper part is occupied by the melt generator which leaves a 0.14 m wide annular space for the steam flow.
The QUEOS facility consists of the test vessel, the furnace and the valve system separating the two. The spheres are heated in an electric radiation furnace in an argon atmosphere. The spheres are discharged into the water with a drop height of 130 cm.
The ECO facility, housed inside the large FAUNA steel vessel, was designed for investigating energy conversion ratios up to 20 %, related to 10 kg of melt. In principle, it consists of a piston/ cylinder system having 4 m in the total height.
ARIGS is one of the programs on the aerosol retention on the tubes surrounding the breach within the secondary side of the steam generator in the absence of water. Its development has been internationally framed within the EU-SGTR and the ARTIST programs.
The RUSET experimental programme was launched in 2002 at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (AEKI). The aim of the program was to get data for assessment of ruthenium release at severe accident with air ingress.